by November 2, 2007 0 comments

Software applications are the backbone of any organization’s commercial
activities. Irrespective of size, each company depends on various software
applications to accomplish every aspect of their business in today’s global
world. Companies invest millions on implementing the best possible enterprise
software in their premises. But soon after deployment, unless applications are
managed continuously, it can lead to downtime, causing business loss.

Rising complexity intensifies the challenge of optimizing application
performance. Enterprise application management brings its own share of complex
issues and challenges, the sheer abundance of them being the most pertinent.
With IT teams juggling demands of hundreds of internally implemented
applications, it is not easy to manage and utilize them to the optimum level.
Importantly once an application has been deployed it is costly and also
difficult to make material changes to the application.

The ultimate result is that while enterprise applications continue to become
more important to the operation of the business, issues with their performance
become more prevalent and difficult to identify, and resolve. Recognizing the
importance of proper monitoring and management of applications, we will focus on
some of the best available tools for application management and performance
monitoring and also tell you some of the best practices for application

An application monitoring tool can be a piece of software or an appliance
that continuously monitors, diagnoses and informs about problems that slow down
applications you are running.

Application performance relates to the speed as in how fast transactions are
completed or the information that is getting delivered to the end user by the
application via a particular network, application and Web services
infrastructure. The idea here is to detect and resolve the problem before users
start experiencing any difficulties or poor performance.

Spotlight shows the activities
of disk, memory and SQL processes in real-time for performance monitoring.
Also the I/O speed is tracked for logical and physical data reads

Database optimization tools
With increasing size of data, databases tend to get sluggish over time.
Database optimization tools are used to improve their performance. As the size
of a database increases, it results in a series of logs to be created; this in
turn increases the overhead. These tools try to do diagnostics for the database
by reviewing parameters such as log, cache size and shared pool size. Such tools
help the DBA to tune up the performance of the database along with the option of
monitoring the database and its space consumption for logs and buffer.

For performance tuning, these tools follow different algorithms based on the
type of database server. For eg, a tool called, DB Tuning Expert for Oracle,
tunes up the crucial parameters in Oracle to get optimal performance. Also by
reclaiming the unused space in data storage and by clearing up the log file,
database performance can be improved.

The memory view of the server
instance shows the buffer cache information along with graphs for Hit Rates
and Page Allocation on time scale

Web application optimization tools
Whenever Web application optimization is referred, most of us confuse it
with Web optimization appliances. But there are software tools available that
perform the same task. Cache control is one technique used by such tools for
optimizing web apps. Using cache control tools you can limit cache size, create
rules for objects residing in cache to be updated or deleted, and synchronize
cache memory spread across multiple servers. HTTP Compression is one of the most
popularly used techniques for optimizing Web based apps over the WAN. It can be
done at Web server as well as browser level. At server level you can either keep
Web content in a pre-compressed format or you can use a third party software to
dynamically compress the content.

Quest Management Suite for SQL Server
DBAs now have to cope with ever increasing responsibilities of managing the
SQL Servers, as more and more business critical application data gets stored on
them. They have to meet the challenge of managing the database environment that
not only increase in volume but also increase in complexity. The Quest
Management Suite is a set of tools that can help a DBA to manage, monitor and
diagnose problems on his SQL Server. The suite consists of following:

  • LiteSpeed, which is a backup and recovery tool.
  • Capacity Manager, which is storage and resource planning tool
  • Spotlight, a real-time performance diagnostic tool.

Here we will focus on Spotlight and see how a DBA can benefit from the
performance monitoring of the SQL Server.

A database administrator always tries to keep the database up and running,
but he can never be sure about bottlenecks that would hamper database
performance. In such a scenario, using manual techniques to diagnose and resolve
the bottleneck becomes hard for the DBA. QuestSoftware’s Spotlight on SQL Server
is a tool that can help a DBA in resolving such bottlenecks, and also help him
to monitor the SQL Server, to identify and eliminate the situations where such
bottlenecks could arise. Spotlight is a database performance-monitoring tool
that allows a DBA to observe the actual database activity on a real time basis
in a graphical interface.

Configuration and use
For configuring Spotlight for the SQL Server, you have to specify a working
database that would be used by Spotlight to maintain monitoring counters and
logs. When the configuration step has been completed, a DBA can create
connections to the SQL Server that Spotlight would monitor for performance. On
the main screen, Spotlight presents a graphical representation of activities
occurring amongst the components of SQL Server. The DBA can view components such
as disk storage, memory and SQL processes on the main screen and also view data
flow rates amongst these components. The representation of database server
activities by Spotlight is done on a real-time basis. So, whenever any
bottleneck is about to occur, the DBA monitoring the server over Spotlight can
determine the problem area and resolve it even before the bottleneck takes

Spotlight also does a calibration process periodically that automatically
sets a baseline for the server-based on performance parameters such as Cache Hit
Ratio, Latency Period, etc. This allows it to set the speed of internal data
flow and other activity counters like cache size, log buffer size, etc. When
this threshold gets crossed, it sends an alert upon which the DBA can take
appropriate action.

The Buffer Cache Hit Ratio shows the percentage of the logical reads
satisfied by the data already in Buffer Cache. The DBA had to calculate these
ratios through some SQL queries or through native tools earlier, but with
Spotlight he can have this information on real-time basis. This is critical
information, and as the Hit Ratio goes down, the DBA can increase or clear the
cache to maintain performance.

Spotlight also offers the option of viewing status and graphs for memory, SQL
activities and database. Under Memory view, the buffer cache of each database
object and the page allocation can be monitored. The SQL Activity view shows the
current response time for data queries, Cache Hit rates and CPU utilization
information in graphical format. Spotlight also maintains an Error log, which
can be used to pinpoint the reason for any server bottleneck. The DBA can also
keep record of how many active sessions are there to the server and how many
users are currently accessing the server. Spotlight is an important tool for a
DBA to keep the database server up and running, by eliminating bottlenecks
before they can happen.

With the help of AppWatch one
can view the error message, which will be exactly what the user will be

Chroniker AppWatch
At times system administrators receive the message that an application is
taking more than the required time to respond even though the database and
application are running fine. Hence, it becomes difficult to identify where
actually the application is taking time to respond.

Chroniker AppWatch provides you with a solution for the same. It’s a
performance testing software that allows you to monitor the application, tells
you its response time and what the end user experience is. Using this software,
one can easily find the exact point where the application is taking time. For
example, does it take time to load the application or is it taking time in
querying the database. It also provides you with ‘analysis reports’ such as SLA
reports. It automatically generates reports such as the ‘n’ slowest tasks per
month, 10 least available tasks per month, etc.

The interesting fact about this software is that it can simulate the real
user behavior. It automatically finds icons on the desktop even if the position
of the icon is changed, as it captures and recognizes a Windows object just as a
human does. Also when a Web page is getting loaded, you can configure the
software to wait until the page is fully loaded so that a particular action can
be taken, such as putting search string after the required text box is loaded
completely. Moreover, its user friendly interface lets you design test suites
without having prior scripting knowledge.

Here, we show how it can be done. Before starting the design of the test
suite, one has to note down what steps will evolve during the test. For example,
to open a particular application you have to find the respective shortcut on the
desktop and then double click on it. For writing the test suite, open up the
‘Scenario Builder’ form and Start > All Programs > Chroniker > Scenario Station.

For convenience, we will load an already written script, which can be found
under the ‘script’ directory named ‘’ Save it by another name say
‘IExplorer.’ Now for using this test suite remotely, one needs to register it to
‘Chroniker base’. For this, go to Tools menu and then click on ‘Register
Scenario’. Now open Internet Explorer on any other computer which is attached to
the same network and open the page http://:8888/, where ‘
is the IP of the system where Chroniker software is installed. When the Web page
gets loaded, navigate to Modules > Applications. Here, all scenarios are listed
along with the number of transactions they have and their status. Moreover, when
an application fails to execute, you can view the screen shot of the page where
the error has occurred.

To run the scenario immediately, click on ‘Run this scenario now’ icon on the
row where scenarios are listed. A window will appear which will show you results
such as response time, after executing the scenario.

Using the Chroniker AppWatch
browser interface one can remotely keep track of all the scenarios including
the overall status

End user measurement
A key concern for any organization is effective maintenance of applications
so that the end user doesn’t face any problems while using them. To maintain
high level of online service quality, organizations must adopt an application
and service management strategy that helps companies ensure that end users
receive the best possible experience while using them. Some key areas must be
addressed from the user perspective are: capabilities to measure application
performance and user experience; and understanding of the usage level, usage
pattern, and content analysis, right down to the individual user level. Like
wise, there can be several other methods to determine key parameters of an
application from an end-user perspective. For eg, user performance measurement
can enable real time monitoring of user activities and individual user activity
can be analyzed for problem detection and diagnosis for quick resolution. Live
Session Capture and Replay helps to capture, search and store each end user’s
actual Web experience.

One can track what a user did and how the system responded. Report on the
service level of synthetic transaction by business processes, geographic
location or time period is again one of the key methods to understand the end
user perspective. Another key point is capacity determination so as to identify
bottlenecks such as ineffective load balancing and poorly performing servers.

Best Practices in Application

Following best
practices provide a framework for achieving results efficiently.
Right now application performance management is more of reactive
troubleshooting than proactive. So when an application slowdown is reported,
the IT staff determines the cause behind the problem and tries to minimize
the operational and business impact from the slowdown. However, there are
measures that can be taken to make the process of application management
more proactive. Here are a few practices that can be adopted:

Step 1: Baseline– Under normal
conditions both network and individually critical applications should be
baselined to determine performance parameters. Whenever an application
performance problem is reported, the baseline can instantly offer data for

Step 2: Application Flow Analysis
This involves analyzing the application during the flow level, i.e. during
an application conversation, as opposed to packet level and then presenting
the summary statistic on the most important aspects of its performance.
Hence, by interpreting flow-level data into actionable information it helps
maximize efficiency and minimize response time.

Step 3: Categorizing and isolating the
— It’s important to first understand the type of problem and
then categorize it for isolation. There can be several reasons for the
problem, hence categorization is important.

Causes for trouble can be application code,
which if written inefficiently is bound to create a negative impact,
irrespective of whether the application is transactional or streaming in
nature or performs bulk file transfer. The problem will be evident if
monitored by an application management system. Another cause for the problem
could be network infrastructure.

Before application performance management
solutions came into picture, inadequate bandwidth was considered to be the
primary cause of poor application performance. But now with companies
investing significantly on bandwidth improvement it has been clearly found
out that this doesn’t have any connection with poor application performance.

Another reason for the problem could be
understanding of protocols. At times inefficient network protocol is behind
an application performance problem. An application performance management
tool can help determine such kind of issues and facilitate better
understanding of how a protocol works. This in turn helps developers to tune
the protocol, making it better for the application.

Sometimes an underpowered server, outdated
operating system, clients running unauthorized software, or cycle —
consuming activities such as unscheduled backups, can also be the source of
slow application performance. Application performance tools can identify
this problem and intimate the IT staff about the same.

The advanced application management
solution allows taking data which they generate and convert them into a more
illustrated, comprehensive report which helps the IT team to maintain a
track record of the behavior of certain applications. These in turn help
them understand the applications and device proper maintenance schedule
depending on their behavior.

Understanding the end user perspective and managing the same result in
several benefits for the organization, such as maximizing application
productivity or profit potential by understanding user behavior, think-time and
navigation path. Also you can learn how your users are using the application
through usage reports and trend analysis. By optimizing the application
potential you will be enhancing overall user experience. Another key benefit is
the practice of proactive service level management by aligning IT service
delivery to initiatives and goals.

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