by April 1, 1999 0 comments

Archie: A search tool
for use with FTP that searches an Archie site (a database of filenames) for a specific filename.

ARPANET (Advanced Research
Projects Agency Network):
The predecessor of the Internet, in use between 1971
and 1990, connecting military and academic institutions. Officially dismantled in 1990.

Certificate authority: An
organization that issues digital certificates. A CA is responsible for guaranteeing a
certificate holder’s identity.

CGI (Common Gateway
Interface):
A specification for transferring information between a Webserver and
a CGI program. The programs can be written in any language like C, Perl, Visual Basic,
Java, as long as it conforms to CGI specifications. CGI makes it possible for Webservers
to dynamically interact with users. The most common use of CGI is seen in online forms.

Client: When you access a service on
a computer, then your computer is the client, while the other one is called the server.
Services include file and print, e-mail, Web, etc.
When you access a service on
a computer, then your computer is the client, while the other one is called the server.
Services include file and print, e-mail, Web, etc.

Digital certificate: An attachment
sent along with a message for authentication purposes. A digital certificate verifies that
the user sending the message is who he or she claims to be.
An attachment
sent along with a message for authentication purposes. A digital certificate verifies that
the user sending the message is who he or she claims to be.

Directory service: A service that
stores information on the network in a hierarchical format for easy accessibility. It can
store information about applications, equipment, and users on a network.
A service that
stores information on the network in a hierarchical format for easy accessibility. It can
store information about applications, equipment, and users on a network.

Domain: A group of computers that
function under common rules. On the Internet, it’s put as an extension in a host name
for identifying the type of host. Various domain types have been identified. These include
.com (company/commercial), .edu (educational institutions), .gov (government), .mil
(military), .org (organization). Outside the US, the domain name is a 2-letter country
code (.in for India).

DNS (Domain Name System):
A system used on the Internet to translate IP addresses into easy to remember names. The
service that does this translation is called DNS. DNS servers are connected with each
other over the Internet. So, if one DNS server doesn’t have an IP address translation
in its table, it queries other systems running DNS to find out.

Download: To copy a file from a
remote machine, for example, with anonymous FTP, or when you want to copy a program from a
Website and save it to your hard disk.
To copy a file from a
remote machine, for example, with anonymous FTP, or when you want to copy a program from a
Website and save it to your hard disk.

To copy a file from a
remote machine, for example, with anonymous FTP, or when you want to copy a program from a
Website and save it to your hard disk.

DHCP (Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol):
A protocol used for dynamically assigning IP addresses
to clients that request for it. When configuring a DHCP server, a pool or range of IP
addresses has to be given. The server then uses DHCP to assign the IP addresses from this
pool.

DHTML (Dynamic HTML):
Refers to Web pages that change their contents depending on client requests.

Finger: A standard utility that is
part of the TCP/IP protocol stack that lets you determine who is a valid user and who is
logged into a system you have access to. It’s used in UNIX based systems. The syntax
is finger username@domain. name, or finger@host.

Firewall: A system to prevent
unauthorized access to a private network. A firewall is used on a network directly
connected to the Internet to prevent outside Internet users from accessing it.
A system to prevent
unauthorized access to a private network. A firewall is used on a network directly
connected to the Internet to prevent outside Internet users from accessing it.

Freeware: Software
that is distributed free of charge, but often without customer service or much
documentation.

FTP (File Transfer
Protocol):
A simple program to transfer files over a network from one computer to
another. Many FTP servers allow you to download files without having an account on the
machine, by using anonymous or FTP for a user name and your e-mail address as a password.
This is a major means of distributing software and info on the Internet.

Gateway: A device that is connected
to the Internet, and allows other machines inside a company’s network to access the
Internet. In other words, it’s the connection point between a LAN and the Internet.
The device can be a specialized piece of hardware like a router, or it can be software
installed on a computer.

GIF (Graphics Interchange
Format):
A standard graphics image format used on the Internet.

Gopher: A menu-based system for
organizing and distributing information on the Internet. It’s similar to FTP as it
lets users browse or download files and directories. A key feature of Gopher is the
ability to include menu items that connect the user to other Gopher servers. Gopher is no
longer in popular use.

Hacker: Originally, this term
referred to crackerjack programmers and computer experts and connoted respect. Though this
meaning is still in use, this word is now also used (especially by the media) to refer to
people who deliberately try to penetrate the security of other computers. The computer
user community prefers to call these people crackers.
Originally, this term
referred to crackerjack programmers and computer experts and connoted respect. Though this
meaning is still in use, this word is now also used (especially by the media) to refer to
people who deliberately try to penetrate the security of other computers. The computer
user community prefers to call these people crackers.

Header: Information in the beginning
of a piece of data being sent over a network that describes its content, the destination
address, etc.
Information in the beginning
of a piece of data being sent over a network that describes its content, the destination
address, etc.

Homepage: An HTML document that
serves as the main access point to a company’s Website.

Guest: When you connect to or log
onto a remote computer on which you don’t have your own account, (perhaps using a
special account for guests) you are referred to as a guest or visitor.

HTML (HyperText Markup
Language):
A simple and easy to learn programming language that Web documents are
written in.

HTTP (HyperText Transfer
Protocol):
The protocol used on the Internet to transfer HTML documents. All Web
browsers use this protocol to read the Web pages.

Hypertext: A new concept for
organizing information made possible by computers, where keywords or phrases can be used
not only to reference additional resources, but also serve as software links to these
resources.
: A new concept for
organizing information made possible by computers, where keywords or phrases can be used
not only to reference additional resources, but also serve as software links to these
resources.

IMAP4: The Internet Message Access
Protocol lets you view your e-mail at the server treating the server mailbox as an
extension of your computer. You can view, delete and search for mail on the server, and
only download the ones you need to your local machine.
: The Internet Message Access
Protocol lets you view your e-mail at the server treating the server mailbox as an
extension of your computer. You can view, delete and search for mail on the server, and
only download the ones you need to your local machine.

Interface: The manner in which a
user provides information to a computer program. Some examples are GUI for graphical user
interface, and CLI for command line interface.
: The manner in which a
user provides information to a computer program. Some examples are GUI for graphical user
interface, and CLI for command line interface.

Internet: The Internet is the Grand
Daddy of all networks. It’s a collection of computers and computer networks across
the world that communicate across dedicated high-speed phone lines using a single protocol
family called TCP/IP.

IP address: A unique set of four
numbers between 1 and 254 separated by periods, such as 209.194.84.60, used to identify
every machine connected to the Internet. As these numbers are very difficult to remember,
they are mapped to an easy to remember name, which is called the host name.
A unique set of four
numbers between 1 and 254 separated by periods, such as 209.194.84.60, used to identify
every machine connected to the Internet. As these numbers are very difficult to remember,
they are mapped to an easy to remember name, which is called the host name.

IRC (Internet Relay Chat):
A program that allows multiple users to conduct typed conversations in real time over the
Internet.

ISO (International
Organization for Standardization):
An international body made up of
national standard bodies from over 75 countries. It’s engaged in defining standards.
The most popular computer standard defined by ISO was the OSI model.

ITU (International
Telecommunications Union):
An international body engaged in defining
telecommunication standards.

JPEG (Joint Photographics
Expert Group):
A standard (compressed) format for color images commonly used on
the Internet. They use the JPG or JPEG extensions.

Jughead (Jonzy’s
universal gopher hierarchy excavation and display):
A powerful gopher search tool
written by Rhett “Jonzy” Jones.

Kermit: A simple modem protocol for
transferring files between Macs and/or PCs, or from these to bigger computers. Since
TCP/IP was adopted as the official Internet protocol in 1983, most PC software has
abandoned Kermit. However, Kermit and its cousins X-, Y-, and Z-modem are still needed in
the absence of an ethernet or SLIP connection.
A simple modem protocol for
transferring files between Macs and/or PCs, or from these to bigger computers. Since
TCP/IP was adopted as the official Internet protocol in 1983, most PC software has
abandoned Kermit. However, Kermit and its cousins X-, Y-, and Z-modem are still needed in
the absence of an ethernet or SLIP connection.

LDAP (Lightweight Directory
Access Protocol):
A set of protocols for querying information directories. There
are various directory services on the Internet that can be queried for information. LDAP
is being used in operating systems like the upcoming Windows 2000 and NetWare for querying
their directory services. LDAP is a simpler version of the X.500 directory service
standard.

Lynx: A text only Web browser. A text only Web browser.

Mailing list: A mechanism for
simultaneously distributing e-mail messages to a group of e-mail users who have subscribed
to the list. A common use of mailing lists is in newsletter subscriptions.
A mechanism for
simultaneously distributing e-mail messages to a group of e-mail users who have subscribed
to the list. A common use of mailing lists is in newsletter subscriptions.

MIME (Multipurpose Internet
Mail Extensions):
A way to encapsulate binary file attachments, such as images
and sounds into e-mail messages. The method was originally suggested in RFC-1341.

MP3 (MPEG1 Layer 3):
A new format for storing audio information that is becoming very popular on the
Internet. It achieves very high compression ratios, and gives high quality playback. Some
shareware MP3 players are available on the Internet. There is an upgrade to the Windows
Media Player that also supports this standard.

Mirror site: A site that is the
exact replica of another site. This is used by various anonymous FTP sites to reduce
bandwidth bottlenecks, so that more users can access it.
A site that is the
exact replica of another site. This is used by various anonymous FTP sites to reduce
bandwidth bottlenecks, so that more users can access it.

Multilink PPP: A protocol that
combines the bandwidths of multiple PPP links to give greater throughputs.
A protocol that
combines the bandwidths of multiple PPP links to give greater throughputs.

Netiquette: The etiquette of
communicating over the Internet. The Internet community follows various conventions when
transmitting information over the Internet. For example, sending a message in all caps is
the equivalent of shouting.
The etiquette of
communicating over the Internet. The Internet community follows various conventions when
transmitting information over the Internet. For example, sending a message in all caps is
the equivalent of shouting.

Newsgroup: A UseNet discussion group
or bulletin board. Users can subscribe to newsgroups, and then see all or post messages on
it.
A UseNet discussion group
or bulletin board. Users can subscribe to newsgroups, and then see all or post messages on
it.

NSFNET: The backbone of the Internet
since 1990 when ARPANET was dismantled. It originally linked six supercomputers through
high-speed phone lines.
The backbone of the Internet
since 1990 when ARPANET was dismantled. It originally linked six supercomputers through
high-speed phone lines.

Online: A standard terminology that
indicates whether an Internet connection is live or not.
A standard terminology that
indicates whether an Internet connection is live or not.

PINE (Pine Is Not Elm):
A sophisticated e-mail utility that can send not only text files, but also binary files,
such as images and sounds by using MIME.

Ping (Packet Internet
Gopher):
A utility that checks whether a host on the Internet is
accessible or not. It’s mostly used to troubleshoot connectivity issues on the
Internet.

PNG (Portable Network
Graphics):
A new graphics format that is becoming popular on the Internet.

Port: A 16-bit number used by a
server to identify itself to clients. A client connecting to a computer uses an IP address
as well as a port number to talk to a particular server.
A 16-bit number used by a
server to identify itself to clients. A client connecting to a computer uses an IP address
as well as a port number to talk to a particular server.

PPP (Point-to-Point
Protocol):
A protocol that dynamically assigns an IP address to a computer, so
that it can access the Internet.

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI): A
technique that uses digital certificates to verify the authenticity of all parties
involved in an Internet transaction.
A
technique that uses digital certificates to verify the authenticity of all parties
involved in an Internet transaction.

Public/private key encryption : A
cryptographic algorithm which uses two keys, one to encrypt and the other to decrypt the
data.
A
cryptographic algorithm which uses two keys, one to encrypt and the other to decrypt the
data.

Push technology: A technology being
used on the Internet in which a server sends out information to the client without the
client requesting for it. The most common use of the technology is seen in subscribing to
newsletters, where news is sent to the registered clients without requesting for it.
A technology being
used on the Internet in which a server sends out information to the client without the
client requesting for it. The most common use of the technology is seen in subscribing to
newsletters, where news is sent to the registered clients without requesting for it.

Pull technology: The opposite of
Push technology in which information is only provided when a client requests for it. The
Web functions on pull technology where a browser sends a request to a Website for
information.
The opposite of
Push technology in which information is only provided when a client requests for it. The
Web functions on pull technology where a browser sends a request to a Website for
information.

RFCs (Request For Comments):
The working notes of the committees that develop the protocols and standards of the
Internet, including proposed changes. These documents contain a great deal of info about
the Net and are maintained by the Internet Activities Board (IAB).

Shareware: Software that is
distributed for a small fee. There is a large shareware community that is philosophically
opposed to selling software for profit.
Software that is
distributed for a small fee. There is a large shareware community that is philosophically
opposed to selling software for profit.

Socket: A software object that
connects a program (process) to a network protocol. A socket allows a software program
(process) to converse with other processes over a network. Sockets use different numbers,
known as ports to communicate with each other.
A software object that
connects a program (process) to a network protocol. A socket allows a software program
(process) to converse with other processes over a network. Sockets use different numbers,
known as ports to communicate with each other.

TCP/IP (Transmission Control
Protocol/ Internet Protocol): A family of protocols used over the Internet. This family
includes protocols for handling data transport (TCP, UDP), routing (IP, ICMP, RIP, OSPF),
addresses (ARP, DNS, RARP), user services (BOOTP, FTP, TELNET), gateways (EGP, GGP, IGP),
and other services (NFS, NIS, RPC, SMTP, SNMP).
(Transmission Control
Protocol/ Internet Protocol): A family of protocols used over the Internet. This family
includes protocols for handling data transport (TCP, UDP), routing (IP, ICMP, RIP,
OSPF),
addresses (ARP, DNS, RARP), user services (BOOTP, FTP, TELNET), gateways (EGP,
GGP, IGP),
and other services (NFS, NIS, RPC, SMTP, SNMP).

Telnet: A utility to log onto a
remote computer.
: A utility to log onto a
remote computer.

Tunneling: A method used to connect
two points using the Internet as the channel. VPNs use tunneling to establish connections
between different computers. The tunneling is done using various tunneling protocols like
PPTP, L2F, IPSec, etc. These protocols encapsulate the data inside the TCP/IP protocol so
that it can be sent over the Internet. Some of these protocols like IPSec also encrypt the
data before sending it for security.
A method used to connect
two points using the Internet as the channel. VPNs use tunneling to establish connections
between different computers. The tunneling is done using various tunneling protocols like
PPTP, L2F, IPSec, etc. These protocols encapsulate the data inside the TCP/IP protocol so
that it can be sent over the Internet. Some of these protocols like IPSec also encrypt the
data before sending it for security.

URL (Universal Resource
Locator):
The mechanism used by the Internet to find a particular page, image, or
sound. Simply speaking, it’s an address for the page.

UseNet (Users’
Network):
A text-based mechanism that supports discussion groups known as
newsgroups, that allow users from anywhere on the Internet to participate. Contrary to the
name, it’s not actually a network but a service available on the Internet.

uuencode (Unix-to-Unix
encoding):
A UNIX utility for converting binary files to ASCII for transmission
via e-mail between UNIX machines. On the receiving end, uudecode is used to convert back
to binary.

Veronica (Very Easy
Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives):
A search tool for use
with Gophers (a rodent).

VPN (Virtual Private Networking): A
technology that allows interconnectivity between networks or between mobile users and a
network using the Internet backbone as the media for transferring the data.
A
technology that allows interconnectivity between networks or between mobile users and a
network using the Internet backbone as the media for transferring the data.

W3C: The World Wide Web Consortium
is an international organization involved in creating and maintaining most Web-based
standards.
The World Wide Web Consortium
is an international organization involved in creating and maintaining most Web-based
standards.

WAIS (Wide Area Information
Servers):
Using keywords supplied by the user, WAIS servers search their
databases for any files which contain a match. WAIS goes beyond Gopher, FTP, and Archie
searches, but is somewhat similar to WebCrawler.

Web browser: An
application for browsing the Internet. These browsers can read both HTTP and FTP Websites.
There are many popular Web browsers around like Netscape Communicator, and Internet
Explorer.

Web page: A page written in
HyperText Markup Language that’s available on the Internet through the HTTP protocol.

Website: A site consisting of
various Web pages that can be accesses by anyone connected to the Internet.
A site consisting of
various Web pages that can be accesses by anyone connected to the Internet.

WWW (World Wide Web):
Now more commonly known as the Web. It’s a system that lets users graphically browse
through sites on the Internet, and follow pointers (called links or hyperlinks) to other
documents that can be anywhere.

XML (Extensible Markup
Language):
A new scripting language being developed by the W3C (World Wide Web
Consortium) which provides more functionality than HTML.

X.500: An ISO and ITU standard that
defines how a directory service should be structured.
An ISO and ITU standard that
defines how a directory service should be structured.

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